D. K. Schroder
Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization
Third Edition, Wiley-Interscience/IEEE
New York, 2006



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This is the only book that covers most of the material and device characterization techniques that are used in the semiconductor industry. It gives the necessary theoretical background of the various techniques, provides examples, and discusses the necessary device physics to understand the characterization methods. It includes homework problems, review questions and over 1400 references. The book is the result of teaching regular university courses and industrial short courses since 1981.

Semiconductor characterization has continued its relentless advance since the publication of the second edition. New techniques have been developed, others have been refined. Probe techniques have further expanded, charge-based techniques have become routine, as has transmission electron microscopy through the use of focused ion beam sample preparation. Line width measurements have become more difficult since lines have become very narrow and the traditional SEM and electrical measurements have been augmented by optical techniques like scatterometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. In addition to new measurement techniques, the interpretation of existing techniques has changed. For example, the high leakage currents of thin oxides make it necessary to alter existing techniques/theories for many MOS-based techniques.
I have rewritten parts of each chapter and added two new chapters, deleted some outdated material, clarified some obscure/confusing parts. I have redone most of the figures, deleted some outdated ones or replaced them with more recent data. The third edition is further enhanced through additional problems and review questions at the end of each chapter and examples throughout the book, to make it a more attractive textbook. I have added 260 new references for a total of 1458 to bring the book as up-to-date as possible.

Table of Contents

Resistivity, Sheet Resistance
Carrier and Doping Density
Contact Resistance, Schottky Barriers
Series Resistance, Channel Length and Width
Threshold Voltage
Oxide and Interface Trapped Charge
Carrier Lifetime
Charge-based and Probe Measurements
Optical Characterization
Electron Beam Characterization
Ion Beam Characterization
X-Ray Characterization
--Hot Carriers
--Gate Oxide Integrity
--Negative Bias Temperature Instability
--Electrostatic Discharge
Failure Analysis
--Quiescent Drain Current
--Emission Microscopy
--Voltage Contrast
--Liquid Crystals Optical Beam Induced Resistance Change